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利用声学方法采集人工影响天气高射炮作业数据
Data Auto-collection Based on Sound Level Characteristics for Weather Modification Operation by Ground-based Artillery Gun Shooting
摘要 为提升人工影响天气地面作业数据收集上报的时效性和准确性,解决高射炮和火箭作业信息完全依赖人工采集录入的瓶颈,该文基于声学探测技术,利用地面作业数据采集传输仪对我国人工影响天气作业用37 mm 口径65型双管高射炮,于2014年7月12日和9月24日分别进行训练模拟弹和 JD-07型防雹增雨炮弹实弹发射数据声级采集试验。分析表明:高射炮发射产生的前导噪音、声级突升和声级峰值,可作为高射炮作业数据自动采集一种极为有效的指标。作业站内环境噪音声级的明显变化能够有效识别单管或双管、单次或连续发射的每发数据,实现对发射时间和发射弹量的自动、实时、精准采集;利用声级特征采集与识别高射炮作业数据,受作业站内感应仪器相对高射炮装备的布设距离和方位的影响较小;前导噪音作为弹药击发的显著标识,可作为高射炮安全监控重要内容,对重大安全事故及其应急处置能够起到有效预警作用。利用高射炮发射每发用弹的声级峰值进行简单对比,还可作为直观检验用弹质量的一个参考。此外,高射炮每发用弹发射的方位角、仰角数据,可以利用声级感应阵列,并基于到达时差法声源定位原理精准计算获得。发射位置数据还可集成 GPS 定位模块实现自动、准确地采集。
Abstract:
As an important task of weather service system,improving information technology on weather modifi-cation aircraft and ground operations and accurately collecting basic data from all kinds of operating equip-ment is an important element for operation management and decision making,as well as the basis for the scientific assessment of operating results.Currently,ground information management of weather modifica-tion operation generally follows earlier national rules of information collection and reporting.On one side, the collected information includes operating equipment,operating time,dosage and other basic informa-tion.A simple assessment is needed to evaluate the operation by combining comprehensive meteorological observations,making it difficult to ensure the timeliness of information reporting.On the other side,the operating information collected at ground enters the system typically by oral reports and hand typing, which limits the accuracy of the reported information.Thus it is difficult for the managing departments to know in-situ operating conditions,which directly limits operations of other services including security man-agement.Improved data collecting methods are needed to overcome the bottleneck that data collection dur-ing weather modification operation relies on hand typing and the associated data security issues,and to im-prove the timeliness and accuracy of data collection.Based on mature technology,it is an effective way to collect operational data automatically through rebuilding operating instruments,and using in-situ operating sound,light or vibration features to trigger automatic responses of ground data operations.The way of u-sing in-situ sound characteristics to trigger automatic responses to identify operating data from common-used artillery guns and rocket launchers also has a low cost and no security risk.In order to overcome the bottleneck,a new ground-level data acquisition and transmission device based on the acoustic technology are developed.Two experiments are carried out to collect sound level data of training shells and JD-07 type cloud seeding shells,respectively,which are shot from a 37 mm diameter,65-type double-barreled artillery gun.This kind of artillery guns is widely used in weather modification throughout China.Results indicate that leading noise,sound level sharp jump and peak value yielded from the artillery gun shooting can act as a very effective index of data automatic collection during weather modification operation by artillery guns. Remarkable changes in the sound level of environmental noises inside the weather modification station can distinguish effectively the information on single or double-barreled and discontinuous or continuous gun shooting.Based on this,the shooting time and the shotted shells can be recorded automatically,accurately and in real time.The distance and position of the data acquisition and transmission device away from the artillery gun in the weather modification station have little effect on the accuracy of gun shooting data col-lection from sound level characteristics.As a significant mark of shell firing from the artillery gun,the leading noise recognition can be an important part of safe operation monitoring,playing an early warning role for major security incidents and their emergency treatment.Comparison of the sound level peak of each shell also helps to provide a visual reference for shell quality inspection.In addition,values of azi-muth and elevation angles for each shell shooting can be calculated precisely based on the principle of time difference of arrival by arranging a sound sensing array.The accurate shooting position information can be collected automatically by integrating a GPS module.
Author: Li Hongyu Wang Hua Jia Lijia Hu Xiangfeng Tao Yue Wang Xiaobin
作者单位: 中国气象科学研究院 中国气象局人工影响天气中心,北京,100081 北京市气象台,北京,100089 天津市宝坻区气象局,天津,301800 河北省人工影响天气办公室,石家庄,050021
刊 名 应用气象学报 ISTICPKU
年,卷(期): 2015, (5)
机标分类号: TB5 S93
在线出版日期: 2015年10月12日
基金项目: 中国气象局气象关键技术集成与应用项目,国家自然科学基金项目,中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项基金