These practices provide general guidelines for the good practice of internal reflection infrared spectroscopy.
1.1 These practices provide general recommendations covering the various techniques commonly used in obtaining internal reflection spectra., Discussion is limited to the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and includes a summary of fundamental theory, a description of parameters that determine the results obtained, instrumentation most widely used, practical guidelines for sampling and obtaining useful spectra, and interpretation features specific for internal reflection.
Gas or vapor sampling is often accomplished by actively pumping air through a collection medium such as activated charcoal. Problems associated with a pumpx2013;inconvenience, inaccuracy, and expensex2013;are inextricable from this type of sampling. The alternative covered by this practice is to use diffusion for moving the compound of interest onto the collection medium. This approach to sampling is attractive because of the convenience of use and low total monitoring cost.
However, previous studies have found significant problems with the accuracy of some samplers. Therefore, although diffusive samplers may provide a plethora of data, inaccuracies and misuse of diffusive samplers may yet affect research studies. Furthermore, worker protections may be based on faulty assumptions. The aim of this practice is to counter the uncertainties in diffusive sampling through achieving a broadly accepted set of performance tests and acceptance criteria for proving the efficacy of any given diffusive sampler intended for use.
1.1 This practice covers the evaluation of the performance of diffusive samplers of gases and vapors for use over sampling periods from 4 to 12 h and for wind speeds less than 0.5 m/s. Such sampling periods and wind speeds are the most common in the indoor workplace setting. This practice does not apply to static or area sampling in wind speeds less than 0.1 m/s, when diffusion outside the sampler may dominate needed convection from the ambient air to the vicinity of the sampler. Given a suitable exposure chamber, the practice can be extended to cover sampler use for other sampling periods and conditions. The aim is to provide a concise set of experiments for classifying samplers primarily in accordance with a single sampler accuracy figure. Accuracy is defined (3.2.1) in this standard so as to take into account both imprecision and uncorrected bias. Accuracy estimates refer to conditions of sampler use which are normally expected in a workplace setting. These conditions may be characterized by the temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and ambient wind speed, none of which may be constant or accurately known when the sampler is used in the field. Futhermore, the accuracy accounts for the effects of diffusive loss of analyte on the estimation of time-weighted averages of concentrations which may not be constant in time. Aside from accuracy, the samplers are tested for compliance with the manufacturer''s stated limits on capacity, possibly in the presence of interfering compounds.
1.2 This practice is an extension of previous research on diffusive samplers (1-14) as well as Practices D 4597
1.3 Knowledge gained from similar analytes expedites sampler evaluation. For example, interpolation of data characterizing the sampling of analytes at separated points of a homologous series of compounds is recommended. At present the procedure of (9) is suggested. Following evaluation of a sampler in use at a single homologous series member according to the present practice, higher molecular weight members would receive partial validations considering sampling rate, capacity, analytical recovery, and interferences. The test for diffusive analyte loss can be omitted if the effect is found negligible for a given sampler or analyte series.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport t......