国内外重金属土壤环境标准值比较:镉
Comparative Study on Soil Environmental Standards for Heavy Metals in China and Other Countries:Cadmium
摘要 土壤镉污染危害农产品质量安全,影响生态环境和人体健康,开展镉的土壤环境标准值研究,合理制定中国镉的土壤环境标准值,对加强镉污染土壤环境管理具有重要意义. 调研获取了包括北美、欧洲、亚太(亚洲及太平洋地区)和非洲等地区16个国家和2个国际组织共52个地区镉的土壤环境标准值数据156个. 综合考虑标准值适用的土地利用方式,调研分析了32个农用地、70个住宅类用地和56个工业(含商业)类用地镉的土壤标准值. 结果表明:( 1)适用于农用地的GB 15618—1995《土壤环境质量标准》中镉的二级标准值,较国际农用地土壤环境标准值更严格;( 2)中国香港特别行政区农村住宅用地、城市住宅用地镉的土壤修复目标值总体上较国际同类标准值更宽松,中国台湾地区非农用地土壤镉的监测标准和管制标准值低于国际同类标准值的中值水平;( 3)与国际上工业类用地镉的土壤环境标准值相比,HJ 350—2007《展览会用地土壤环境质量评价标准(暂行)》A级和B级标准值较国外标准更严格;( 4)制定镉的土壤环境标准值的目标与采用的技术方法、可接受风险水平与镉的毒性参数取值、土地利用方式与相应暴露情景假设以及健康风险评估模型与模型参数的不同,是导致不同国家和地区标准值存在差异的主要原因. 该研究可望为中国不同用地方式镉的土壤环境标准值的制修订提供技术支持.
Abstract:
Cadmium contamination of soils poses a hazard to safety quality of agricultural products and brings about harmful effects on eco-environment and human health. It is, therefore, of important significance to develop reasonable standards for Cd in soil environment in China to the enhancement of management of Cadmium contamination in soil envi-ronment. A total of 156 data concerning soil environment standards ( SESs) for cadmium ( Cd) pollution were gathered from 52 regions in 16 countries and 2 international organizations. By taking into consideration the types of land use suitable to the standards, SESs for Cd pollution in 32 tracts of agricultural land, 70 tracts of residential land and 56 tracts of indus-trial ( and commercial) land were analyzed. Results show that:( 1) Grade II criteria for Cd of the"Standard for soil envi-ronmental quality" GB 15618-1995, of China applicable to agricultural lands, are more stringent than the international SESs for agricultural lands;( 2) the risk-based remediation goals for rural residential, urban residential lands of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China are more flexible than the international SESs for residential land, while the standards for soil Cd monitoring and Cd contamination control in non-agricultural land in Taiwan region are generally lower than the median value of the international counterparts;( 3) Grades A and B criteria of the Standard for Soil Quality As-sessment of Exhibition Sites [ HJ 350-2007 ( interim ) ] of China are more stringent than their respective international counterparts for industrial ( and commercial) land;and ( 4) the variation in SESs from different countries and regions may be attributed to differences in objectives of and technical methodology used for developing SESs for soil Cd, differences in acceptable risk levels and toxicity parameter values of cadmium, differences in land use patterns and assumption of associ-ated exposure scenarios and differences in human health risk assessment models and parameters. This study aims to provide technical support for developing/revising the SESs for Cd in soils for different land uses in China.
Author: WANG Guo-qing DENG Shao-po FENG Yan-hong ZHENG Li-ping ZHANG Ya LIN Yu-suo
作者单位: 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 江苏 南京 210042;国家环境保护土壤环境管理与污染控制重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210042
刊 名 生态与农村环境学报 ISTICPKUCSSCI
年,卷(期): 2015, 31(6)
分类号: X-651 X327 X53
机标分类号: P5 X1
在线出版日期: 2015年12月29日
基金项目: 环保公益性行业科研专项,贵州省重大科技计划,中国工程院全国土壤环境保护及污染防治战略咨询研究项目