环境可持续集装箱班轮运输管理研究综述
A Review of Environmentally Sustainable Container Liner Shipping Management
摘要 集装箱班轮运输业如何在追求成本经济性和服务可靠性的同时做好环境可持续性,对航运企业、港口运营商以及政府组织都提出了新的挑战。围绕集装箱班轮运输在环境层面实现可持续发展的目标,本文分别从战略、战术和运营等3个层面就措施、技术和规章制度等所做的研究进行文献综述、分析发展趋势。战略层面,从市场减排机制和政策的制定、绿色政策、技术及措施评估和企业竞争与合作等3个方面综述;战术层面,从控制油耗或碳排放的班轮运营优化、预调度式的绿色班轮运营优化和污染排放控制区的设立对班轮运营优化的影响等方面综述;在运营层面,从控制排放的集装箱调运和反应式的绿色班轮运营优化等方面综述。按照决策水平、时间脉络和研究主题分析后发现,该领域的研究趋势变化与行业及政府的环境政策紧密关联。其次,从决策水平和问题类别来看,针对战术层决策的研究远多于针对战略和执行两层。第三,从决策主体来看,大部分研究以航运公司作为单独的决策主体。本文建议:继续在优化班轮运输中考虑多目标,将多目标优化作为决策手段可兼顾经济、环境以及社会责任,有利于航运可持续发展;结合行业实践提炼科学问题,国际航运、尤其班轮运输极易受到政策导向、世界经济环境的影响;从供应链角度研究集装箱班轮运输的可持续发展问题;为配合在运营层面的努力,还要研究通过技术途径或手段推动班轮运输业可持续发展;借鉴其他运输行业较为成熟的绿色环保发展思路促进班轮运输环境可持续发展。
Abstract:
The ever- tightening requirements on container shipping management pose a new challenge to shipping companies, port operators and governmental agencies on how to maintain high quality services and benefits while the development of it is to be environmentally sustainable. This paper reviews the methods, technologies and regulations relevant to environmental sustainability of container liner shipping from the strategic, tactical and operational perspectives and identifies the future trends of this research topic. The strategic level review discusses the mechanisms and policies of emissions mitigation, green policies, technologies, measures, and corporate collaboration and competition regarding environmental sustainability of container liner shipping. At the tactical level, optimizing liner shipping, pre-scheduling green liner shipping and establishing emissions control areas in the literature are analyzed with a focus on minimizing fuel consumption and emissions. The operational level review investigates the operations of container loading/unloading and green-responsive liner shipping. The review of the literature at the three levels indicates that the focus areas of the existing research are closely related to the industrial standards and governmental policies on environment. The research on tactical decision-making in the literature is much richer than the research on the strategic and operational issues. Most of the literature takes the shipping company as the major decision maker. The recommendations of this paper include: (1) continue to incorporate multiple objectives in liner shipping optimization and consider the economic, environmental and social factors to achieve a sustainable development of liner shipping; (2) establish scientific problems from the practice of liner shipping, which is significantly affected by the policies of governments, International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the global economic atmosphere; (3) consider global supply chains in the study of the environmentally sustainable container liner shipping problem; (4) explore the technological and operational methods to encourage the sustainable development of linear shipping; (5) borrow the ideas or concepts of green development of other transport modes to promote the environmentally sustainable development of liner shipping.
作者: 葛颖恩 温馨
Author: GE Ying-en WEN Xin
作者单位: 上海海事大学,交通运输学院,上海201306 上海海事大学,经济管理学院,上海201306
年,卷(期): 2021, 21(4)
分类号: U693
在线出版日期: 2021年9月16日
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金/National Natural Science Foundation of China